With 75,000 people per square kilometer, Delhi is over three times more densely populated than London at its peak. And it’s clearly visible how big is Tokyo compared to London and to other cities in our world. Cities do not stay the same. They change and adapt throughout time, just like living beings. In reaction to economic, political, and environmental changes, some expand while others contract. However, they do so in quite varied ways, reflecting local reactions to regional, national, and global changes.
LSE Cities recently focused on the growth, governance, transportation, and density patterns of the four national capitals of Japan, India, Colombia, and the United Kingdom. Tokyo, Delhi, Bogotá, and London have a combined population of almost 80 million people (equivalent to Germany’s population) and a combined GDP of $2. 2 trillion, or three times the size of the Brazilian economy, according to the Brookings Institution. In the previous four decades. Tokyo has evolved into a highly efficient global megacity – however, despite its renowned integrated public transportation system and the 2020 Olympics, the city is expected to lose 400,000 residents over the next 15 years due to low birth rates and a declining national economy. London, on the other hand, has recently emerged from the demographic doldrums, surpassing its historic high of nearly 8.6 million people (its population in 1939) and riding high on its worldwide economic drawing power (it recently topped the Mori Memorial Foundation’s city’magnetism’ rating). Growth is fueled by a dynamic birth rate (twice that of Rome or Madrid) and high in-migration drawn to London’s resilient economy, which is aggressively promoted by its proactive mayors. With a population of just less than 8 million people, Bogotá, Colombia’s capital, has built on the wise policies of successive mayors to deal with typical Latin American trends of informality, violence, and uncontrolled expansion. Bogotá, along with Medelln, is seen as a regional paradigm on how to manage urban development, having introduced the Transmilenio Bus Rapid Transit and a huge system of cycleways (ciclovas, which predate Boris bikes by a decade). Despite being the capital of the world’s largest democracy, or perhaps because of it, Delhi continues to struggle to find a political voice. Despite being one of the safest megacities in the world, with 2. 7 homicides per 100,000 people compared to Bogota’s 16. 1, the metropolitan area of more than 23 million people has seen a sharp increase in inequality, despite the former chief minister’s pioneering efforts to build a metro system and introduce natural gas to its buses and rickshaws. The ‘fit’ between the size of the administrative boundaries governed by a city mayor or governor and the actual number of people who live in the ‘wider functional metropolitan’ area is at the center of current discussions concerning the efficiency of urban governance. As cities’ populations and footprints have grown over time, they have spilled into many political jurisdictions, resulting in fragmented decision-making and lack of coordination, despite the fact that they all ‘belong’ to a continuous metropolitan agglomeration. Only seven million of Mexico City’s 22 million citizens are actually under the supervision of the city mayor of the Distrito Federal, whereas the majority of the population lives (and pays taxes) in the surrounding legislative districts. Inability of a metropolitan-wide entity to raise funds and determine policy and investment strategies for the entire ‘functional’ area inevitably results in dysfunctional transportation, infrastructure, housing, and environmental policies that cannot be solved within the confines of limited political boundaries.
Despite the fact that only roughly 40% of Japanese people practice organized religion, around 80% of people in Japan participate in Shinto ceremonies, while approximately 34% of Japanese people claim to be Buddhists. Due to millennia of blending the two – known as shinbutsu – Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples are frequently found on the same place. Japanese cedar is also known to be the national tree of Japan, along with many other fun facts about the country.
Shinto shrines can be found all around Japan. A fascinating tidbit about Japanese culture! Shinto is a Japanese religion system centered on nature and a large number of gods. Shinto shrines can be discovered in unexpected settings, such as down back alleys, inside trees, beneath mountains, and at the base of skyscrapers. Omairi, or going to a shrine, is still a common occurrence; it’s not uncommon to see people praying at their local shrine on their way home from work.
Clapping is done while praying at shrines. This is one of the many fascinating facts about Japanese culture that we discovered while in Japan. Yep. But first, you bow, offer some tiny coin, bow deeply twice, ring the bell (which notifies the gods that you’ve arrived), clap twice, pray, and thank the gods in your head, bow deeply one more, and depart. In Japanese culture, shrine etiquette is a given!It’s very acceptable to eat alone in Japan. Unlike many other countries, walking into a restaurant and finding a table by yourself is not unusual. It’s common to sit alone at a bar and eat Japanese food.
There is a form of Japanese cuisine that is influenced by Western cuisine. Yes, this is another one of those fascinating and entertaining Japanese cultural facts. It’s known as yoshoku. When the county was opened to the West, it went to Japan. Hamburger steak, curry with a British flavour, and omurice (Japanese rice wrapped in an omelet) are also popular dishes. This is so embedded in Japanese culture as what Westerners eat that they are startled when a Westerner has never heard of omurice. For 1,400 years, Japan was almost entirely vegetarian. That may appear to be a bizarre fact about Japanese culture, yet it is correct. The Meiji emperor himself broke the taboo and ate meat in the nineteenth century, popularizing a Japan that was becoming more receptive to Western ideals. Prior to that, Buddhist laws enacted in the 7th century made it illegal to eat meat (birds and fish were okay, though). It is not customary to wear shoes indoors. Separate toilet slippers are frequently provided. Taking off your shoes before entering a house, restaurant, or hotel is a good practice because it keeps the dirt outside. After all, it’s not easy to get dirt out of a tatami mat.
Bowing to Nara’s deer Bowing – or ojigi – is important in Japanese culture, which is perhaps self-evident. And by that, we mean pretty much everyone. It’s a real thing, whether it’s a nod to the convenience store clerk or a massive bow to your boss. Your level of respect for the person you’re bowing to is determined by how many times you bow and how deeply you bow. Even buddies make bows to one another! There’s even a proper manner to hand a business card over. It’s all in the name of respect. It’s designed to be taken with both hands (and a small bow). Then you’re meant to examine it – nearly study it. Then you’re not supposed to stuff it in your pocket or throw it out carelessly. A wallet will suffice. Many people, on the other hand, have specialist cardholders. It’s enormous – almost everyone owns one. In Japan, being loud on the train is considered impolite. When you board a train in Japan, the first thing you’ll notice is how quiet it is. When people do speak, it is usually in hushed tones. On the train, people rarely make phone calls (a handy fact to know about Japan). Because you’re in such close quarters, staying to yourself is not just the most courteous but also the most logical thing to do. It’s all about achieving balance.
Devices produced in Japan to terrify animals that represent a hazard to agriculture The sound of a bamboo rocker arm hitting a rock is a shishi-odoshi, which disrupts the silence of a Japanese garden.
Japanese devices such as the kakashi (scarecrow), naruko (clappers), and szu that are used to scare away animals that represent a hazard to agriculture. It is synonymous with szu in a narrower sense. A szu is a sort of Japanese garden water fountain. It is made up of a segmented tube, commonly made of bamboo, that is pivoted to one side of its center of gravity. Its heavier end is down and resting against a rock when it is at rest. A trickle of water into the tube’s upper end builds up and finally moves the tube’s center of gravity past the pivot, forcing the tube to rotate and drop the water. The heavier end then hits the rock again, generating a harsh sound, and the cycle begins again. That’s what this japanese bamboo water feature is about.
Originally meant to shock animals such as deer boars that might be grazing on the garden’s plants, shishi-odoshi are now a part of the visual and acoustic design of gardens, and are employed largely for their aesthetic value.
The 10 Most Beautiful Bamboo Water Fountains
The sound of trickling or flowing water from bamboo water fountains can transform your yard into a calming, serene retreat.
Here are ten of the greatest bamboo water fountains that are both affordable and simple to install.
These fountains can be utilized as a standalone water feature indoors or outdoors, or they can be positioned in a garden pond.
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The height of this outdoor bamboo water fountain may be adjusted up to 24 inches (60 cm).
It will produce melodic splashing sounds at its highest point, while the sound will be tranquil and pleasant at its lowest point.
The bamboo spout is made of Tam Vong bamboo, which is stronger by weight than steel and resists splitting and cracking better than other bamboo species.
Here’s something a little different: a water garden! A water spout and sluices made of bamboo lead to a small pond.
Beginner (Multiple Days) Here’s a quick and easy way to add a relaxing waterfall to your yard. This Japanese bamboo water feature is simple to construct. We’ll show you how to build the bamboo sluice in a single day and we’ll also show you how to build a small pond to catch the water complete with a pump and water plants, if you want to turn this into a weekend project.
With an Antique Japanese Tea Set, you can add a touch of history to your tea party.
A fine example of Asian craftsmanship is an old Japanese tea set. Any Japanese tea set created before 1952 may be referred to by this phrase. A Japanese tea set built after 1920, on the other hand, is known as a vintage tea set.
Any collection would benefit from the addition of a reasonably priced Japanese porcelain tea set. Beginning in the 1500s, Japanese tea sets and teacups were transported into Europe. The era of very old Japanese tea sets is usually determined by the Japanese dynasties. If you come across any of them, you’ll need the assistance of a Japanese specialist to translate the markings. The dynasties are as follows:
Momoyama reigned from 1573 to 1603;
Edo (1603-1867) was a Japanese dynasty that ruled from 1603 to 1867;
Meiji (1868-1913) was a Japanese emperor who reigned from 1868 to 1913;